Pollution Bark Monitoring -
F. Hofmann, G. Bracke, A. Giesemann, U. Siemers, W. Wosniok
The data were statistically analysed, standardised and an Air Pollution Bark Monitoring Index was calculated, indicating the relative change of air pollution compared to the background pollution level for each substance in a comparable way. The results of the bark monitoring were related to the secondary data from the dispersion models and pollution surveys to test the gradients of air pollution. Fingerprints were calculated using discriminant functions and multiple regression analysis.
The results of the bark monitoring showed significant gradients
for the elements and substances in relation to the tested pollution
Around the steel factory we found major gradients for elements like Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, Nb, Ni, V, all of them typically for steel processing (see for example V in fig. 6). The gradients were of similar shape but showed differences in the extent according to the individual emission rates. The same applied for the lead- and zinc factory, where significant gradients of Pb, Sb, In, Cd, Cr, Zn were visible (see fig. 7 for Sb).
The sites of air pollution caused by traffic had common patterns by typical values of the isotopic ratios of Pb and some PAH, sulphur and its isotopic ratio d34S showed significant values for the sour gas field and the sites in saxony (see fig. 8 for the isotopic ratios of S and Pb).
The analysis of data gave distinct patterns of elements, isotopes and PAH in respect to the different air pollution sources (fig. 9).
This allowed to calculate fingerprints which could successfully be used to differentiate the specific impacts of the various pollution sources for each site (fig. 10).
With the new Hofmann bark sampler it became possible to sample
the outer bark of trees in a comparable way, so that the bark could
be analysed successfully for many substances. This allows a
standardisation of biomonitoring air pollution by tree bark.
The results show that the method works well in reflecting the gradients of air pollution impacts related to industrial emission sources. Furthermore, the combined analysis of elements, isotopes and PAH allows a fingerprinting of the sources of pollutants. The analysis of the isotopic composition of S and Pb were found to be very useful in this approach.
The results indicate that the Air Pollution Bark Monitoring is especially valuable for screening purposes. The new method allows to gain information on air pollution deposition levels for many substances and many sampling points within one sampling and thus in acceptable time. Therefore the Air Pollution Bark Monitoring gives an ideal addition to technical based surveys and it could be of great value for many tasks in air pollution surveys and for controlling industrial emission sources.
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